Appropriate health history questions and review are essential in helping patients maintain oral and systemic health. Insulin resistance (IR) is considered a chronic and low-level inflammatory condition. It is closely related to altered glucose tolerance, abdominal obesity, and coronary heart disease. IR is accompanied by an increase in the inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 and -6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Levels of these cytokines also effect the progression of IR.
Periodontitis is the most common oral disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are released in the disease process of periodontitis, including interleukin-1 and interleukin-6. Periodontitis can be attributed to exacerbation of IR. Data in the literature supports a "two-way relationship" between diabetes and periodontitis. The coexistence of systemic and oral inflammatory diseases warrants closer examination by dental professionals.
- Understand the role cytokines play in inflammatory disease.
- Recognize the relationship between insulin resistance and diabetes related to oral health.
- Develop health history questions designed to identify possible inflammatory problems.
- Provide education for patients to help them play an active role in addressing inflammatory diseases.
Ms. Lory Laughter
University of the Pacific, San Francisco, California
Lory Laughter, RDH, MS, has been a active dental hygienist since her graduation from Idaho St. University in 1994. In 2015 she earned a MS degree in Dental Hygiene from the University of California, San Francisco. ...